Message archive

      The Eyes Say More Than the Mouth? / 目は口ほどに物を言う?

      posted Aug 18, 2014, 12:10 AM by 田中千秋   [ updated Sep 4, 2014, 12:08 AM ]

      Last year my eyesight suddenly worsened, deteriorating to less than 0.1 vision even with correction.
      When I went to the doctor to find out what was wrong, I was told the eye lenses were distorted.
      Surgery was performed immediately to partially remove the lenses and insert artificial ones.
      During the operation, the movement of the eyeballs was stopped, but the operation began with my seeing as I normally see.
      Then it felt like I was inside a tunnel of light.
      When the bandages were removed three days after the operation…everything looked distorted!
      A 350ml can of beer on the supermarket shelf looked like a mini-sized 250ml can.
      I felt cheated.
      Was the surgery a failure?
      Would my eyesight remain this way for the rest of my life?
      At the time I was fairly depressed about the situation, but now—more than six months later—it’s absolutely no problem.
      That’s right, you get used to it.
      The performance of the human eyeball (lens) is essentially not very good—in fact, it’s said to be inferior to that of a QuickSnap disposable camera or even a toy camera.
      At the stage that an image of even a straight line is formed in the retina, the line is not clear.
      However, humans are capable of differentiating between straight and crooked lines.
      According to biologists, this is because over many years a person sees many lines and their brain learns what is a “straight” line and makes corrections accordingly.
      Moreover, humans use only the center of the eye lens, minimizing the effects of distortion as far as possible.
      To compensate, the eyeball moves extremely rapidly as the brain processes the image, creating balance.
      In recent years, expectations have been held for glasses-shaped wearable terminals, and in the future, a day may come where it is possible to project everything in one’s field of view from a high image quality glasses-shaped flexible monitor.
      When one looks directly at a certain point, the monitor automatically zooms in on that point, combining with a rear view to provide 360 degrees of vision; at first this would make you dizzy, but in six months the brain become accustomed to this new vision and it becomes indispensable…But this is not likely to happen for some time yet, is it?
      But if life with a 100% wearable monitor were truly to become a reality…
      At that time, the saying “The eyes say more than the mouth” will fall out of use as the wearable terminal will look into people’s eyes and obtain information directly.
      When that happens, it may truly be the age of “the eyes saying more than the mouth”.

      August 18th, 2014 Kazunari Kimino, Photonics Center 

      2014年8月18日 フォトニクスセンター 君野 和也

      A big discussion of "Cultivation of researchers and merit-based institute"; 45 participants debated actively in the 39th Colloquium on June 2nd / 「研究者育成と成果主義の研究機関」大討論会:6月2日第39回コロキアムで45人が白熱議論

      posted Jun 3, 2014, 12:54 AM by 田中千秋   [ updated Jun 15, 2014, 4:31 PM by 倉田早織 ]

      We held a debate session with the theme of "cultivation of researchers and merit-based institutes" and participants talked about "Dr. Obokata's case". We had the honor to invite a young researcher from Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Mr. Hisao Inoue of the freelance journalist, and Mr. Takeshi Nemoto from Mainichi Newspapers Co., Ltd. We could hear valuable opinions about "Dr. Obokata's
      case" from each position of them.

      Prof. Kawata presided this debate session as a moderator and 45 participants, which included teaching staffs(professors, associate professors, assistant professors etc.), companies, lab workers and students, exchanged their opinions actively. They debate about keywords like "Nature", "mass media", "national government", "MEXT", "copy & paste", "people on the Internet", "ethics education", "collaboration research", "fix-term researcher", "fix-term research institute", "female of 30 years old", "the ethical doctrine that human beings is fundamentally good against scientists", "reproducibility".

      While a number of precarious postdoctoral have been "made" by the project of MEXT to produce ten thousands postdoctoral, they are also screened through accomplishments. There were some opinions that this social system made situations that researchers were doubted to fake the result of research, and actually some researchers did fake.

      Prof. Kawata closed the session with pointing out the necessity of reforming system. A good example is Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Germany, which is gave assurance of autonomy by financial support from national government, states and private sectors.

      We could find some feedbacks after the event. And one opinion from them said he was wondering the influence of Japanese nationality to this matter, what would happen if this matter had happened in United States. In another opinion, he said they should change the screening system in some areas  other people have difficulties to find someone's dishonesty. We are so pleased to have many feedbacks that said they could enjoy this colloquium to hear various thoughts or they wanted much more time to debate in questionnaire after the colloquium.

      We thank all of you for participation.

      June 3rd, 2014 Saori Kurata, Photonics Center





      2014年6月3日 フォトニクスセンター 倉田 早織

      Do you know the page of “Photonics Center e-learning”?/フォトニクスセンター e-ラーニングについて

      posted May 6, 2014, 6:35 PM by 田中千秋   [ updated May 6, 2014, 6:58 PM ]

      Hello, this is an information from the person in charge of "Photonics Center e-learning".
      One month has already passed from a new school term and it feels like summer is on its way.
      Today, I woud like to introduce “e-learning”on the Photonics Center web site.

      ● Photonics Center e-learning

      There are several courses in Photonics Center e-learning.One is "Photonics Course" which you can learn about the Photonics from the basics to the cutting edge, the other is "Photonics Entrepreneurship Course" which is recommended for those who would like to be entrepreneurs. There is also a course you can take a look without registration.
      Osaka University faculties, students, staffs and people who belong to Photonics Center member companies can access "Photonics Center e-learning" on the Web.If you belong to Osaka University, personal ID can be used through the Campus Authentication Service to access and watch the Photonics Center e-learning videos.If you belong to Photonics Center member companies, you can access the site with ID and password which will be issued after the submission of application initially.

      Attractive scenarios for learners, experienced faculty teaching staff, and exhaustive information that merit repeated study-all of these factors  serve to simulate learners' desire to "look again and delve further."

      Learners may access the course online at any time of the day. Since the videos are segmented into less than 20 minute sections, learners will not grow tired of repeated studying. And PC(Windows/Macintosh), Smartphones, Tablet PC(iOS/Android) are all available.

      They are not only the Professional Photonics Courses but also the Entrepreneurship Courses and some other courses which would rather surprises you since there is the variety of courses. It is a benefit of only people who belong to Osaka University and Photonics Center member companies.

      Please try to access it! We are looking forward to your visit!

      May 7th, 2014 Chiaki Tanaka, Photonics Center e-learning
      こんにちは。フォトニクスセンター eラーニング担当です。

      ●フォトニクスセンター eラーニング

      フォトニクスセンター eラーニングは、フォトニクスの基礎から最先端まで学べる「フォトニクス講座」、そしてビジネスを考えている方におすすめの「フォトニクス起業講座」を公開しています。その他、ログインせずに見られる一般公開講座もあります。

      フォトニクスセンター eラーニングは、大阪大学関係者の方とフォトニクスセンターのパートナー企業の方に開講しております。





      2014年5月7日 フォトニクスセンター 田中 千秋


      posted Feb 25, 2014, 8:54 PM by parc osaka   [ updated Feb 25, 2014, 9:35 PM ]

      I have always been wondering why the society in Japan is so harmonious. People are so kind and willing to serve the society well.

       One of many aspects I notice is braille writing that is named after its inventor Louis Braille. It is almost everywhere in Japan. You can easily find it on stair armrest, sidewalk, pedestrian crossing button and so on. Even it is imprinted on a beer can, which leaped to my eyes recently. I am amazed and moved by the great care behind the seemingly "trivial dots”. It reflects the common sense of care here. This care is circulated among the most people into every corner in the cities. In fact, it is not only the braille, but also the way of mutual humility and respect, help people to establish understanding with each other. People who live in such a caring environment must feel equal and happy. It touches me as well and makes me love this society.

       Everyday in Photonics Center, I see the braille on the stair armrests and feel everyone and everything being harmony. Photonics Center is a harmonious small society, like photons with energy into resonance. I love being working here and act as one of the photons resonant with the others to help Photonics Center irradiate its big energy.

       February 26, 2014 Jun Yu, Photonics Center


      私がひとつ気づいた点は、発明者であるルイ ブライユが名前の由来になっているBraille(点字)です。階段の手すりや歩道、横断歩道側のボタンなど、ほとんどどこにでもあります。ビールの缶にさえも印字されていることに気づき、最近驚きました。また、この一見すると“小さな点”に十分な配慮をしていることに心動かされました。この心配りはこの日本での共通感覚を現しており、人々の至るところに流れています。実は、点字だけではなく、謙虚さや相手を敬う気持ちが相互理解を構築する手助けになっています。このような相手を思いやる環境で暮らす人々は穏やかで幸せに違いありません。このことは私の心に響き、そしてこの社会が好きになりました。



      2014226日 フォトニクスセンター 余 俊

      3つの深い教訓/Three Profound Lessons

      posted Jan 27, 2014, 3:52 PM by フォトニクスセンター eラーニング   [ updated Jan 27, 2014, 3:53 PM ]

      On August 8th, 2013, I began my six-month sabbatical leave research in Photonics Center, Osaka University. In addition to my research study in the field of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, I have learned three profound lessons.

      First, my visiting experience to Photonics Center was that one could immediately understand why the research programs here are world class. As I went to several laboratories and saw advanced experimental techniques on biomedical and plasmonic images as well as nanophotonics, there were either postdoctoral fellows or Ph.D. students from all corners of the world giving me clear answers to many of my naive questions. I was truly impressed that Photonics Center promotes the research projects with initiative, innovative, and intellectual characters.   

      Second, I participated in a number of research and educational activities, for example, UV-DUV Plasmonics and Nanophotonics Workshop, Photonics Center e-learning, and 4th Photonics Kid’s school. These activities were spiritually led by Prof. Kawata and actively developed with students, faculty, and staff members in Photonics Center. The mission of these activities is to attract and nurture young talent covering from graduate students to elementary school students. Such strategy is a perfect fit with what Confucius said: teach in line with the student’s ability.

      Third, thinking further about the key elements embedded in Photonics Center, the first one is diversity and the second one is continuity. The diversity is a nature outcome of globalization and action in Photonics Center. This creates value by opening minds and thoughts. The continuity is linked with patience. Results of excellent research need long-time efforts supported by Photonics Center. Where there is a will, there is a way.  

      I am very pleased that I acquire a bunch of harvest from my visit. Most importantly, many thanks for the warm hospitality I receive from everyone at Photonics Center.

      Hsiang-Lin Liu, Professor of Physics, NTNU, Taiwan


      第二に、私は数多くの研究や教育活動、例えば、UV- DUVプラズモニクス ナノフォトニクス ワークショップ、フォトニクスセンターeラーニング、そして第4回こども科学の教室スーパー光塾に参加しました。これらの活動は河田教授に率いられ、フォトニクスセンターの学生、教員、スタッフにより積極的に開発されました。これらの活動の使命は、大学院生から小学生に及ぶ若い才能を引き付け、育成することです。生徒の能力に沿ったものを教える:このような戦略は、孔子の教えとぴったり一致します。



      国立台湾師範大学 劉 祥麟 物理学 教授

      Harvesting Three years

      posted Dec 26, 2013, 4:22 PM by フォトニクスセンター eラーニング   [ updated Dec 26, 2013, 11:30 PM ]

      Seven years have passed since the PARC Project began; I and everyone else involved are seven years older. Children who were in elementary school when the project was launched now visit the P3 Building as Osaka University students. I am filled with gratitude towards everyone who has supported the project over these past seven years: partner companies, Osaka University researchers, and project staff. I recall the difficulties I caused everyone when I said that I would not take the position of executive director despite proposing the PARC Project after reflecting on the failure of the previous Osaka Frontier Research Organization.

      At the time of the project's establishment, we set up an office sign at the entrance to the Kawata research laboratory, and so the project was like a laboratory program. Subsequently, we were able to borrow rooms in the Applied Physics Research Building (P2) and bring together many colleagues. The Photonics Center Building (P3) was then constructed, providing us with a many experiment facilities as well as seminar rooms and clean rooms, etc. 

      The next three years will be a time for harvesting the fruits of our efforts. My paper on plasmon sensors was presented to the Japan Society of Applied Physics in 1986 (the English language version was published in 1988), and a patent obtained for the near-field scanning optical microscope using a metallic probe tip in 1992 (English language paper was published in 1994). Some 25 years have passed since then, and nowadays people in the fields of physics, chemistry, and biotechnology who are not specialists in this area are now familiar with the term "plasmon". I intend for the next three years to be years in which we harvest the fruits of our plasmon research efforts and contribute these to society, and then to seek further development of these results. This new year we will again aim to radically generate innovation, and so I ask for your continuing support of our activities.

      December, 27th, 2013
      Satoshi Kawata, Executive Director, Photonics Center



      フォトニクスセンター長 河田 聡

      ご存知ですか? フォトニクスセンター eラーニング/Do you know the page of “Photonics Center e-learning”?

      posted Dec 15, 2013, 6:26 PM by フォトニクスセンター eラーニング   [ updated Dec 15, 2013, 6:33 PM ]

      Hello, this is an information from the person in charge of "Photonics Center e-learning".
      Do you know there is a page of“e-learning”on the Photonics Center web site?

      ● Photonics Center e-learning

      You can also find it from "e-learning" tab at the top of this page.

      There are several courses in Photonics Center e-learning.
      One is "Photonics Course" which you can learn about the Photonics from the basics to the cutting edge, the other is "Photonics Entrepreneurship Course" which is recommended for those who would like to be entrepreneurs. There is also a course you can take a look without registration.

      Osaka University faculties, students, staffs and people who belong to Photonics Center member companies can access "Photonics Center e-learning" on the Web.
      If you belong to Osaka University, personal ID can be used through the Campus Authentication Service to access and watch the Photonics Center e-learning videos.
      If you belong to Photonics Center member companies, you can access the site with ID and password which will be issued after the submission of application initially.

      PC(Windows/Macintosh), Smartphones, Tablet PC(iOS/Android) are all available and
      you can learn the courses through our site anytime, anywhere, 24 hours a day.

      There are 2 versions in "Photonics Course", English and Japanese version.
      English versions also have dubbed versions and subtitled versions.

      We have increased some courses at once from this summer.
      They are not only the Professional Photonics Courses but also the Entrepreneurship Courses and some other courses which would rather surprises you since there is the variety of courses.

      We will also post some courses how to use the Photonics Center equipment next year.
      It is a benefit of only people who belong to Osaka University and Photonics Center member companies.

      Please try to access it!
      We are looking forward to your visit!

      December, 16th, 2013 Chisato Nakamura, Photonics Center e-learning
      はじめまして、フォトニクスセンター eラーニング担当です。

      ●フォトニクスセンター eラーニング


      フォトニクスセンター eラーニングは、フォトニクスの基礎から最先端まで学べる「フォトニクス講座」、そしてビジネスを考えている方におススメの「フォトニクス起業講座」を公開しています。

      フォトニクスセンター eラーニングは、大阪大学関係者の方と、フォトニクスセンターのパートナー企業の方に開講しております。

      フォトニクスセンター eラーニングは、インターネットが使える環境であれば、いつでも、どこでも、24時間学習ができるサービスです。



      フォトニクスセンター eラーニングは、この夏から秋にかけて一挙に講座数が増えました♪



      2013年12月16日  eラーニング担当 中村 千里

      光の面白さを子ども達へ ~第4回スーパー光塾~/Let's have a fun of light ! -4th Kid's Photonics School “Super HIKARI JUKU”-

      posted Oct 16, 2013, 4:54 PM by 内山友江   [ updated Oct 24, 2013, 9:58 PM by フォトニクスセンター eラーニング ]

      Hello, I am Takayuki Umakoshi, chair of 4th Photonics Kid’s school. I know this might seem like a sudden and rather strange question, but do you know why you can see seven colors in a rainbow? When I find a rainbow in the sky after the rain stops, I cannot help watching the beautiful scene for a while. What makes the colorful rainbow can be found in the mysterious nature of light.

       “Why is the rainbow colorful?” I would like you elementary school kids to wonder about such natural things, and be interested when you notice that light plays an important part in them. That is why I made “how mysterious things can be seen” a theme for the Photonics Kid’s school. Of course, we are going to hold many exciting light experiments, not just about rainbows. These include PIKAPIKA: doodling with light (making twinkling paintings by a penlight on photos), black light and the secret code (finding hidden words by shining a black light) and more. You will wonder “how can light make such interesting things happen?” and get really excited. I am sure that you kids have already had various amazing experiences about the curious phenomena of light. I will be delighted if you gain interest and knowledge about light through this school!

       All our staff are doing the best for you elementary school students to enjoy and become interested in light. Please apply for the school by 31st October 2013, and become a Doctor of Light! 

      You can find more details on our website, here: https://sites.google.com/site/superlightjuku/home

      4th Photonics Kid's school -Super "HIKARI JUKU"-Student President Takayuki Umakoshi





       第4回子ども科学の教室 スーパー光塾 学生統括 馬越貴之

      分析のちから / Power of analysis

      posted Sep 26, 2013, 9:49 PM by 内山友江   [ updated Sep 26, 2013, 10:33 PM ]

      Hello. I’m Naoyoshi Kubota  of Nanophoton Corporation . I spend most of my time working in our R&D Center on the 3F of the Photonics Center, analyzing materials using Raman spectroscopy. I’m using materials analysis everyday as a matter of course, and I’d like to take this opportunity to consider what we call ‘analysis’.

      The Japanese characters for ‘analysis’ literally mean dividing the object of analysis into its component elements and investigating each one individually. The elements in this case can be space, time or anything else. For example, I think that a requirement for analyzable spatial scales that was developed in the direction of millimeter, micrometer, nanometer and microminiature scales can meet the requirement for spatial analysis from one point of view.
      And surely it’s the methodological beauty of analysis and the findings of the people who have put it to skilled use that provided the invisible support for today’s scientific advances.

      However, this involves one assumption, that of reversibility. After breaking the object of analysis into its elements and investigating each element, we assume that if we rebuild it, it will revert to its original appearance. If you empty a box of building blocks, play with the ones you like then put them back in the box, there you are, they’re back as they were.
      It’s just plain common sense. But some writer (sorry I forget who), suggests that the natural world is a bit different — in fact, in many cases, reversibility doesn’t apply. In other words, analysis doesn’t deliver true information about the object of analysis! So is my work a waste of time?!

      Well, it seems not in fact. At least not in real-life terms. More than ninety-percent? No. If reversibility makes up about 50% of the total, although it isn’t perfect, I believe it’s still enough to provide an answer for practical purposes. 
      What’s important is knowing what it is that you want to clarify, and the limitations of the analytical methods used as tools to that end. When we conduct analysis for a client, we make sure that they’re fully aware of these two points. Surprisingly, in many cases they’re not sure of these things. However, once this is clear, a signal tends to emerge from the noise. I half-jokingly call this ‘getting a hunch ’, but hunches are also important in this work.

      Now in principle, since there are limits to analysis, we tend to want to reduce needless hassle and just get on with observation. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool in this respect because you can measure samples with very little preparation. In addition, there are few restrictions on the setup environment of the samples. It really is an analytical method suited to investigating complex systems just as they are. You can use it at the Photonics Center, so please do come and try it out.





      ごく当たり前のようですが、ある文献によれば、自然界は少し違う・・・どころか、可逆性が適用できないケースが多いとのこと(すみません、出典は忘れてしまいました)。すなわち分析しても、対象物についての本当の意味での情報は得られない! 私の仕事は無駄!?

      いえいえ、そうでも無いようです。少なくとも実生活と言う範囲では。せいぜい90%? いえ50%程度の可逆性が成り立っていれば、完璧でないにしろ実用上十分な解答を与える事ができるように思います。



      時代は物理学から化学へ(?) From the Age of Physics to the Age of Chemistry?

      posted Aug 22, 2013, 5:54 PM by 内山友江   [ updated Aug 26, 2013, 6:17 PM ]

      From the Age of Physics to the Age of Chemistry?

      Shinji Murai*

      Professor Emeritus of Osaka University and Nara Institute of Science and Technology

      There is currently a shift underway from a physics-centered orientation to more of a chemistry mode. Those of us who have been engaged in chemical research for many years are quick to seize on anything complimentary that is said about chemistry. In recent years, several people have written about the differences between physics and chemistry (see References). I would like to explore this topic.

       Based on research into physical phenomena, Japanese industry has scored major successes in electronics and other fields. According to recent statistics, however, there is a greater rate of growth in added value in the chemical industry than in the electronics industry. Functional chemical materials have been the key to recent innovations in not only electronics and chemistry but various other industries as well.

       For example, consider displays for TVs and other applications. Cathode-ray tubes that are illuminated by irradiating a fluorescent substance with electron beams have long since disappeared, and liquid crystal displays — which were once thought to have no potential for use — are now on top of the world. But even these are gradually being replaced by organic electroluminescence (EL), an advanced self-luminous chemical material.

       Or take automobiles. These mechanical devices are the crown jewels of classical mechanics. But these days almost all of the components in an automobile are actually chemical products. Of course, however, the control system consists entirely of electronics. The shift to chemistry will become even more pronounced in next-generation automobiles. In 2015, Japan and other countries will begin marketing fuel cell vehicles that use hydrogen as a fuel source. In both these fuel cell automobiles and battery-driven electric automobiles, drivers will make direct use of chemical phenomena. The high hopes for chemistry's potential can also be seen in the current shale gas and shale oil revolution, as well as in the environmentally friendly industries and industries that use heretofore untapped natural resources, which will become increasingly important in the future.

       The profits of 20th century industry were based on physics. In the 21st century, industrial profits will come from both chemistry and physics. In the new age, it is the companies that shift their center of gravity from physics to chemistry that will survive and prosper.

       There is an interesting school of thought that considers the differences between physics and chemistry as academic disciplines. According to this view, the current age requires a shift from a "physics methodology" to a "chemistry methodology." Physics does not concern itself with individual phenomena but rather has sought to identify universal principles that are present in all things. This enables physics to predict the point at which an object will fall if you throw it, as well as the distance and speed at which it will travel. By contrast, chemistry has concerned itself with individual phenomena and the existence of a diversity that is made up of innumerable individual phenomena. Furthermore, it has attempted to identify the numerical diversity of the combinations between a specific issue and other issues. Thus it deals with problems that are both diverse and complex. If you throw an object, it wants to know whether it was rock or sand, or flour or powder snow, and whether or not the wind was blowing and whether it was raining.

       Present-day issues such as climate change, biodiversity, the food supply and the energy industry are often complex and difficult to predict. To deal with such complex issues, the methodology of chemistry, which has not shirked from considering extremely complex and diverse problems, will be more and more valuable from this point on.

      In addition, I have noticed that chemistry people tend to respect physics. If they need to, they study the areas of physics (even if it is only a small area) that they need to learn. And so they learn to understand and get the hang of it. But physics people, by and large, seem to dislike chemistry. Even if they study a bit of chemistry, they do not seem to be able to understand it well. Imprinting that results from rote repetition of simple operations will not be easily changed. Physics people tend to avoid issues that involve diversity.

      But it’s good that Kawata Photonics Center- has a hybrid sense of both chemistry & physics. It is hoped that the center will go further to multi-sciences. 

      * General Manager, IWATANI R&D Center / Professor, NARA INSTITUTE of SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY/ Principal fellow, Department of Innovation, JST (Kansai Liaison Office).



       Hiroyuki Itami "Nihon no Sangyo no Kagakuka (The 'Chemicalization' of Japanese Industry)" Kagaku to Kogyou (Chemistry and Chemical Industry) 111, pg. 62 (February 2009).

      Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki "Kagaku Teikoku-syugi? (Chemical Imperialism?)" Kagaku (Chemistry) 11, 2011, pg. 65.

       Kikkawa, Takeo "Nihon no Kagaku Sangyo ga Sekai wo Oinuku Michisuji (How Japan's chemical industry can overtake the world)" Kagaku to Kogyou (Chemistry and Chemical Industry) 515, 2011, pg. 64.

       Kikkawa, Takeo and Hirano, So "Kagaku Sangyo no Jidai – Nihon wa Naze Sekai wo Oinukerunoka (Era of chemical industry: How Japan's chemical industry can overtake the world)" The Chemical Daily Co., Ltd. (2011).

       Itami, Hiroyuki "Nihon Kigyo wa Nande Kutte Ikunoka (How will Japanese companies make a living?)" Nikkei Inc. (2013).










       学問としての物理学と化学について興味ある見方がある。時代が求めるのは「物理学の方法論」から「化学の方法論」へという視点である。物理学は個々の事柄にはこだわらず、その中を貫く普遍的な原理を求めてきた。その結果、物を投げれば落下点や距離や速度は予想できる。一方化学は、個々の事柄にこだわり、個別的存在が限りなく多いという多様性を扱ってきた。さらに個別的問題と別の個別的問題との関係という組み合わせ数的な多様性に挑戦してきた。多様で複雑な問題を扱ってきた。物を投げる? 石か砂か、小麦粉か、粉雪か、風は吹いているのか、雨は?









      「日本の産業の化学化」 伊丹敬之 化学と工業2月号 111622009

      「化学帝国主義?」 吉川弘之 化学11652011

      「日本の化学産業が世界を追抜く道筋」 橘川武朗 化学と工業 515642011

      「化学産業の時代―日本はなぜ世界を追い抜けるのか」橘川武朗、平野創 化学工業日報社(2011

      「日本企業はなんで食っていくのか」 伊丹敬之 日本経済新聞社(2013

      1-10 of 26